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What Is In The Income Statement?

What Is In The Income Statement

The Income Statement is a financial summary of a company’s revenues, expenses, gains, and losses over a certain period. The primary purpose of the income statement is to show the company’s profitability by calculating its net income or net loss for the period.

Here’s what is typically included in an income statement

1. Revenue – Revenue represents the total amount of money earned by the company from its primary business activities, such as sales of goods or services. Revenue may include sales revenue, service revenue, interest income, rental income, and other sources of income generated by the business.

2. Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) – The Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) represents the direct costs associated with producing or purchasing the goods sold by the company. COGS includes expenses such as raw materials, labor costs, and manufacturing overhead directly attributable to the production process.

3. Gross Profit – Gross Profit is calculated by subtracting the Cost of Goods Sold from the total Revenue. It represents the profit margin before deducting operating expenses and indicates the profitability of the company’s core business operations.

4. Operating Expenses – Operating Expenses are the costs incurred in running the day-to-day operations of the business. They include expenses such as salaries, rent, utilities, marketing, administrative expenses, and depreciation.

5. Operating Income (or Loss) – Operating Income (or Operating Loss) is calculated by subtracting Operating Expenses from Gross Profit. It represents the profit (or loss) generated from the company’s normal operating activities, excluding non-operating items such as interest and taxes.

6. Non-Operating Income (or Loss) – Non-Operating Income (or Loss) includes revenue or expenses not directly related to the company’s core business operations. It may include interest income, gains or losses from investments, or one-time items such as asset sales or write-offs.

7. Income Before Taxes – Income Before Taxes represents the company’s total income or loss from both operating and non-operating activities before deducting income taxes.

8. Income Tax Expense – Income Tax Expense represents the company’s tax obligation based on its taxable income for the period. It is calculated based on applicable tax rates and regulations.

9. Net Income (or Net Loss) – Net Income (or Net Loss) is the final bottom-line figure on the Income Statement. It represents the company’s total profit or loss after accounting for all revenues, expenses, taxes, and other income or expenses. A positive net income indicates profitability, while a negative net income indicates a loss.

The income statement provides valuable insights into a company’s financial performance, profitability, and operational efficiency. It helps stakeholders assess the company’s ability to generate revenues, control expenses, and generate sustainable profits over time.